figure_FA_humans.png

Figure 5: To see whether the patterns of errors made by humans are consistent with our model, we studied the second-order statistics of the 50 non-animal images that human subjects in Serre et al. (2007) most commonly falsely reported as having an animal. We call this set of images the false-alarm image dataset. (Left) This chevron map plot shows the ratio between the second-order statistics of the false-alarm images and the full non-animal natural image dataset, computed as in Figure 3 (left). Just as for the images that actually do contain animals (Figure~\ref{fig:chevrons2}, left), the images falsely reported as having animals have more co-circular and converging (red chevrons) and fewer collinear and orthogonal configurations (blue chevrons). (Right) To quantify this similarity, we computed the Kullback-Leibler distance between the histogram of each of these images from the false-alarm image dataset, and the average histogram of each class. The difference between these two distances gives a quantitative measure of how close each image is to the average histograms for each class. Consistent with the idea that humans are using edge co-occurences to do rapid image categorization, the 50 non-animal images that were worst classified are biased toward the animal histogram ($d' = 1.04$), while the 550 best classified non-animal images are closer to the non-animal histogram. Go back to manuscript page.

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